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1843 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ AÎ÷çAæ{Àÿ ¯ÿ$öæ µÿœÿú ÓsœÿÀÿZÿ fœÿ½ æ ¨ç†ÿæ üÿ÷æœÿfú {¾æ{Éüÿú AÎ÷çAæ {Óœÿæ¯ÿæÜÿçœÿê{Àÿ üÿçàÿxÿú þæÉöæàÿú $#{àÿ Lÿç;ÿë Lÿœÿ¿æÀÿ fœÿ½ {¯ÿÁÿLÿë †ÿæZÿÀÿ þõ†ÿë¿ Wsç$#àÿæ æ þæ†ÿæ {ÓæüÿçZÿ D¨{Àÿ ¨Àÿç¯ÿæÀÿ ’ÿæßç†ÿ´ $#{àÿ þš fëAæ{QÁÿ{Àÿ {Ó Ó¯ÿë Ó¸ˆÿç ÜÿÀÿæB{’ÿ{àÿ æ Lÿ÷þÉ… SëfëÀÿæ~ {þ+æB¯ÿæ LÿÎLÿÀÿ {ÜÿæB¨Ýçàÿæ æ üÿÁÿ{Àÿ ÓsœÿÀÿ Daÿ Éçäæ àÿæµÿ LÿÀÿç œÿ$#{àÿ þš œÿçfÀÿ AæS÷Üÿ ¯ÿÁÿ{Àÿ BóÀÿæfê, {üÿ÷o, Bsæàÿê µÿæÌæ{Àÿ ’ÿä†ÿæ Aföœÿ LÿÀÿç ¯ÿçÉ´ ÓæÜÿç†ÿ¿ Ašßœÿ LÿÀÿç$#{àÿ æ
1873 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ {Ó µÿçFœÿæÀÿ {SæsçF ™œÿê F¯ÿó Aæµÿçfæ†ÿ¿ ¨Àÿç¯ÿæÀÿ{Àÿ `ÿæÀÿçf~ Lÿœÿ¿æ Ó;ÿæœÿZÿÀÿ W{ÀÿæB ÉçäLÿ µÿæ{¯ÿ {¾æS {’ÿ{àÿ æ {ÓÜÿç ¨Àÿç¯ÿæÀÿ{Àÿ LÿœÿçÏ ¨ë†ÿ÷ {ÜÿDd;ÿç Aæ$öÀÿ æ †ÿæZÿÀÿ þš ÓæÜÿç†ÿ¿ ¨÷†ÿç SµÿêÀÿ AœÿëÀÿæS $#àÿæ æ üÿÁÿ{Àÿ ¯ÿ$öæ F¯ÿó Aæ$öÀÿ ¨ÀÿØÀÿ ¨÷†ÿç AæLÿõÎ {ÜÿæBS{àÿ æ Lÿç;ÿë ¨Àÿç¯ÿæÀÿ †ÿÀÿüÿÀÿë ¯ÿç¯ÿæÜÿ œÿçþ{;ÿ Ó¼†ÿç þçÁÿç¯ÿæ AÓ»¯ÿ $#àÿæ æ ¨÷$þ†ÿ… : Aæ$öÀÿ ¨Àÿç¯ÿæÀÿ $#àÿæ ™œÿê F¯ÿó Ó»÷æ;ÿ F¯ÿó ’ÿ´ç†ÿêß{Àÿ ¯ÿ$öæ, Aæ$öÀÿZÿ vÿæÀÿë Óæ†ÿ ¯ÿÌö ¯ÿßÓ{Àÿ ¯ÿÝ $#{àÿ æ FÜÿç Óþß{Àÿ Aæàÿú{üÿ÷xÿú {œÿæ{¯ÿàÿúZÿ ÓÜÿç†ÿ Ó¸Lÿö ×樜ÿ üÿÁÿ{Àÿ ¯ÿ$öæZÿ fê¯ÿœÿ{Àÿ FLÿ {þæÝ AæÓçàÿæ æ Aæàÿú{üÿ÷xÿú {œÿæ{¯ÿàÿú F¯ÿó ÓsœÿÀÿúZÿ Ó¸LÿöÀÿ Aæ’ÿ¿ Lÿ$œÿ AæLÿÓ½çLÿ LÿëÜÿæ¾æB¨æ{Àÿ æ 1876 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ {œÿæ{¯ÿàÿú, Q¯ÿÀÿLÿæSf{Àÿ {SæsçF ¯ÿçj樜ÿ {’ÿB$#{àÿ "A very wealthy, cultured, elderly gentleman, living in Paris, desires to find a lady also of mature years, familiar with languages, as secretary and manager of his household". {Ó{†ÿ{¯ÿ{ÁÿLÿë 44 ¯ÿÌö ¯ÿßÔÿ Aæàÿú{üÿ÷xÿú {œÿæ{¯ÿàÿú ÝæBœÿæþæBsú D’ÿúµÿæ¯ÿœÿ üÿÁÿ{Àÿ ¯ÿçÉ´¯ÿçQ¿æ†ÿ ¯ÿçˆÿÉæÁÿê ¯ÿ¿Nÿç µÿæ{¯ÿ ¯ÿç{¯ÿ`ÿç†ÿ $#{àÿ æ Aæ$öÀÿZÿ ¨Àÿç¯ÿæÀÿ †ÿÀÿüÿÀÿë FLÿÀÿLÿþ ¯ÿæš LÿÀÿæ¾æB ¯ÿ$öæ ÓsœÿÀÿZÿë ¨¿æÀÿçÓú ¨vÿæB ’ÿçAæSàÿæ æ Aæàÿú{üÿ÷xÿú {œÿæ{¯ÿàÿú f{~ þÜÿçÁÿæZÿvÿæ{Àÿ {¾Dô ÓþÖ Së~ AæÉæ LÿÀÿë$#{àÿ, †ÿæÜÿæ ¯ÿ$öæ ÓsœÿÀÿZÿ vÿæ{Àÿ µÿÀÿ¨ëÀÿ þÜÿfë’ÿú $#àÿæ æ {†ÿ~ë {Ó †ÿæZÿë †ÿëÀÿ;ÿ `ÿæLÿçÀÿç{Àÿ {¾æS {’ÿ¯ÿæ ¨æBô Aæþ¦~ Lÿ{àÿ æ Lÿç;ÿë {¨÷þÀÿ AæLÿÌö~ œÿçLÿs{Àÿ Ó¯ÿë Lÿçdç ÜÿæÀÿ þæœÿçàÿæ æ ¨¿æÀÿçÓú{Àÿ ÀÿÜÿç¯ÿæÀÿ þæ†ÿ÷ ’ÿëB Ó©æÜÿ ¨{Àÿ Aæ$öÀÿ F¯ÿó ¯ÿ$öæ, LÿæLÿÓú (¯ÿˆÿöþæœÿÀÿ ff}Aæ) ¨Áÿæßœÿ LÿÀÿç ¯ÿç¯ÿæÜÿ ¨{Àÿ {Óvÿæ{Àÿ ’ÿêWö œÿ' ¯ÿÌö ÓæÜÿç†ÿ¿ Ó晜ÿæ{Àÿ þS§ ÀÿÜÿç{àÿ æ Lÿç;ÿë Aæàÿú{üÿ÷xÿú {œÿæ{¯ÿàÿúZÿ ÓÜÿç†ÿ ¯ÿ$öæZÿÀÿ ¨†ÿ÷æÁÿæ¨ Ó¸Lÿö A¯ÿ¿æÜÿ†ÿ ÀÿÜÿç$#àÿæ æ
1887 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ ¯ÿ$öæ F¯ÿó Aæ$öÀÿ ¨¿æÀÿçÓú ¨÷†ÿ¿æ¯ÿˆÿöœÿ Lÿ{àÿ æ {Ó Óþß{Àÿ ÓæÀÿæ ¯ÿçÉ´ ¾ë•Àÿ ¯ÿçµÿêÌçLÿæ{Àÿ µÿê†ÿÚ†ÿ æ Lÿç;ÿë Lÿçdç ¯ÿ¿Nÿç ¨¿æÀÿçÓú Aæ;ÿföæ†ÿêß ÖÀÿ{Àÿ Éæ;ÿç ¨÷†ÿçÏæ ¨æBô D’ÿ¿þ AæÀÿ» LÿÀÿç$æ;ÿç æ ¯ÿ$öæ ÓsœÿÀÿ {ÓÜÿçþæœÿZÿ ÓÜÿç†ÿ Óæþçàÿ {ÜÿæBS{àÿ æ LÿæÀÿ~ {Ó ÓæÜÿç†ÿ¿Àÿ ÓæþæfçLÿ ’ÿæßç†ÿ´ Ó¸Lÿö{Àÿ Ó¸í‚ÿö Ó{`ÿ†ÿœÿ $#{àÿ æ Lÿçdç ¯ÿÌö ¨í{¯ÿö, 1853 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ ¨÷LÿæÉç†ÿ AZÿàÿ sþÓú Lÿæ¯ÿçœÿú D¨œÿ¿æÓ Aæ{þÀÿçLÿæ{Àÿ Wõ~ç†ÿ Lÿ÷ê†ÿ’ÿæÓ¨÷$æ ¯ÿç{Àÿæ™{Àÿ fœÿÓ{`ÿ†ÿœÿ†ÿæ ÓõÎç LÿÀÿç¯ÿæ{Àÿ Ó¯ÿöæ™#Lÿ ÓÜÿæßLÿ {ÜÿæB$#{àÿ- F Ó¸Lÿö{Àÿ {Ó A¯ÿS†ÿ $#{àÿ æ
1891 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ ¯ÿ$öæ µÿœÿú ÓsœÿÀÿZÿ D¨œÿ¿æÓ "Lay Down your Arms" ¨÷LÿæÉ ¨æB¯ÿæ ¨{Àÿ ¾ë• ¯ÿç{Àÿæ™# {SæÏêZÿ ÓæÜÿÓ ¯ÿÜÿëSë~ç†ÿ {ÜÿæBSàÿæ æ FÜÿæ¨{Àÿ ¯ÿ$öæ ÓsœÿÀÿ ¾ë•Àÿ Aæ†ÿZÿ {àÿæ¨ ¨æBô ¯ÿç™#¯ÿ• ÓóS÷æþ AæÀÿ» LÿÀÿç{’ÿ{àÿ æ
1891 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ †ÿæZÿ ’ÿ´æÀÿæ ¨÷Öë†ÿ "Éæ;ÿç BÖæÜÿæÀÿ' ¯ÿçÉ´{Àÿ ×æßê Éæ;ÿç ¨÷†ÿçÏæ œÿçþ{;ÿ ’ÿ´æÀÿ Dœÿ½&ëNÿ LÿÀÿç$#àÿæ æ {ÓÜÿç ¯ÿÌö {Ó AÎ÷çAæ Éæ;ÿç Lÿþçsç Svÿœÿ LÿÀÿç$#{àÿ F¯ÿó †ÿæÜÿæÀÿç ¨÷µÿæ¯ÿ{Àÿ H †ÿæZÿÀÿç D’ÿ¿þ{Àÿ 1892 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ fþöæœÿú Éæ;ÿç þÜÿæÓóW, 1893 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ {f{œÿµÿæ{Àÿ Aæ;ÿföæ†ÿêß Éæ;ÿç ¯ÿë¿{Àÿæ F¯ÿó 1896 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ Üÿ{èÿÀÿê Éæ;ÿç Óþæf ¨÷†ÿçÏæ {ÜÿæB$#àÿæ æ 1899 þÓçÜÿæ{Àÿ {œÿ’ÿÀÿàÿæƒÀÿ {ÜÿSúvÿæ{Àÿ ¨÷$þ ¯ÿçÉ´ Éæ;ÿç Ó¼çÁÿœÿê AæÜÿ´æœÿ LÿÀÿç$#{àÿ F¯ÿó FÜÿæ ¯ÿçÉ´{Àÿ ×æßê Éæ;ÿç ¨÷†ÿçÏæÀÿ ¨÷$þ {Óæ¨æœÿ µÿæ{¯ÿ ¯ÿç{¯ÿ`ÿç†ÿ æ
fê¯ÿœÿÀÿ A;ÿçþ ¨¾ö¿æß{Àÿ Aæàÿú{üÿ÷xÿú {œÿæ{¯ÿàÿú ¯ÿçÉ´{Àÿ Éæ;ÿç ¨÷†ÿçÏæ œÿçþ{;ÿ D’ÿ¿þ AæÀÿ» LÿÀÿç$#{àÿ æ {†ÿ~ë {Ó ¯ÿ$öæ ÓsœÿÀÿZÿ ÓóØÉö{Àÿ AæÓç¯ÿæLÿë àÿæSç{àÿ æ "Lay Down your Arms" D¨œÿ¿æÓ †ÿæZÿë ¯ÿÜÿë µÿæ¯ÿ{Àÿ ¨÷µÿæ¯ÿç†ÿ LÿÀÿç$#àÿæ æ {ÓÜÿç Óþß{Àÿ ¯ÿ$öæ ÓsœÿÀÿ, Aœÿ¿ ¨ëÀÿÔÿæÀÿ ÓÜÿç†ÿ Éæ;ÿç {œÿæ{¯ÿàÿú ¨ëÀÿÔÿæÀÿ ¨÷†ÿçÏæ ¨æBô Aæàÿú{üÿ÷xÿúZÿë ¨ÀÿæþÉö {’ÿB$#{àÿ F¯ÿó {Ó †ÿæÜÿæ AæS÷ÜÿÀÿ ÓÜÿç†ÿ S÷Üÿ~ LÿÀÿç$#{àÿ æ {¾Dô Óþß{Àÿ ¯ÿçÉ´ÖÀÿ{Àÿ œÿê†ÿçS†ÿ œÿçшÿç {Lÿ¯ÿÁÿ ¨ëÀÿëÌþæœÿZÿ ’ÿ´æÀÿæ œÿçߦç†ÿ {ÜÿD$#àÿæ, ¯ÿ¿Nÿç†ÿ´ F¯ÿó ¨÷†ÿçµÿæ¯ÿÁÿ{Àÿ ¯ÿ$öæ ÓsœÿÀÿ †ÿæÜÿæÀÿ ¯ÿç¨Àÿê†ÿ ¨÷þæ~ LÿÀÿç{’ÿ{àÿ æ Aæàÿú{üÿ÷xÿú {œÿæ{¯ÿàÿúZÿë FLÿ ¨†ÿ÷{Àÿ {Ó {àÿQ#$#{àÿ-{Ó Óþß{Àÿ œÿæÀÿêþæ{œÿ {µÿæs ¨÷’ÿæœÿ A™#LÿæÀÿÀÿë ¯ÿo#†ÿ $#{àÿ æ Aæfç ¯ÿ$öæ µÿœÿú ÓsœÿÀÿ Aæþ Óþæf ¨æBô {¨÷Àÿ~æÀÿ Óí†ÿ÷ {ÜÿæB ÀÿÜÿçd;ÿç æ
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