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Aæþ Óºç™æœÿ ¯ÿçÉ´Àÿ ¯ÿõÜÿˆÿþ †ÿ$æ Ó¯ÿëvÿæÀëÿ ¯ÿçÉ’ÿ Óºç™æœÿ µÿæ¯ÿ{Àÿ ¨Àÿç~†ÿ {ÜÿæBdç > þíÁÿ ’ÿàÿçàÿ{Àÿ 395sç Aœÿë{bÿ’ÿ H 8{Sæsç AœÿëÓí`ÿê àÿç¨ç¯ÿ• {ÜÿæB$#àÿæ > A™ëœÿæ FÜÿæÀÿ 441sç Aœÿë{bÿ’ÿ H ¯ÿæÀÿ{Sæsç AœÿëÓí`ÿê Adç >
Aæþ Óºçç™æœÿ ¨÷Öë†ÿç{¯ÿ{Áÿ A™#LÿæóÉ Aœÿë{d’ÿ µÿæÀÿ†ÿÀÿ ÓÀÿLÿæÀÿ AæBœÿ 1935Àÿ A¯ÿçLÿÁÿ D•Àÿ~ LÿÀÿçdë æ ¾ëNÿÀÿæÎ÷ Aæ{þÀÿçLÿæ Þæoæ Aœÿë¾æßê {þòÁÿçLÿ A™#LÿæÀÿ SõÜÿê†ÿ LÿÀÿçdë > AæßæÀÿàÿ¿æƒ Óºç™æœÿÀëÿ AœÿëSõÜÿê†ÿ {ÜÿæB$#¯ÿæ Lÿ$æ œÿç{”öÉLÿ Óç•æ;ÿSëÝçLÿ ¨÷†ÿçüÿÁÿç†ÿ LÿÀÿçdë æ ¾ëNÿÀÿæf¿ †ÿ$æ Aœÿ¿æœÿ¿ ÀÿæÎ÷Àÿ Óºçç™æœÿÀëÿ Aæþ {’ÿÉLëÿ Qæ¨ QëAæBàÿæ ¨Àÿç D¨æ’ÿæœÿþæœÿ S÷Üÿ~ LÿÀÿçdë >
FÜÿæ FLÿ ¯ÿç`ÿç†ÿ÷ F¯ÿó Ó´†ÿ¦ Óºç™æœÿ, ¾æÜÿæ Aœÿ¿†ÿ÷ {’ÿQæ¾æF œÿæÜÿ]> ¾ëNÿÀÿæÎ÷ Aæ{þÀÿçLÿæ ¨Àÿç FÜÿæÀÿ GLÿ¿¯ÿ• ÓóWêß ÓÀÿLÿæÀÿÀÿ Àíÿ¨{ÀÿQ {œÿBdç A$`ÿ Aæ{þÀÿçLÿæÀÿ ÀÿæÎ÷¨†ÿçZÿ ¨Àÿç FÜÿæÀÿ ÀÿæÎ÷¨†ÿç Ó{¯ÿöÓ¯ÿöæ œÿ {ÜÿæB ¾ëNÿÀÿæf¿ ÀÿæÎ÷þëQ¿ ¨Àÿç FLÿ Àÿ¯ÿÀÿ {þæÜÿÀÿ A$`ÿ fÀëÿÀÿêLÿæÁÿêœÿ fæ†ÿêß ¨Àÿç×ç†ÿç {¯ÿ{Áÿ {Ó AQƒ äþ†ÿæ {µÿæS LÿÀÿ;ÿç> µÿæÀÿ†ÿêß Óºç™æœÿ{Àÿ Dµÿß {Lÿ¢ÿ÷ H Àÿæf¿SëÝçLÿ ¨æBô Óºç™æœÿ ¨÷~ßœÿ àÿæSç Aœÿëþ†ÿç ¨÷’ÿæœÿ LÿÀÿæ¾æBdç > Aœÿë{bÿ’ÿ 370{Àÿ D{àâÿQ LÿÀÿæ¾æBdç {¾ FÜÿç Óºç™æœÿÀÿ ™æÀÿæSëÝçLÿ fæ¼ë H LÿæɽêÀÿ Àÿæf¿Àÿ ¨ÀÿæþÉöLÿ÷{þ ÀÿæÎ÷¨†ÿçZÿ ’ÿ´æÀÿæ Aæ{’ÿÉ fæÀÿç LÿÀÿæ¾ç¯ÿ æ ¨{Àÿ àÿæSë LÿÀÿæ¾æB¨æÀÿç¯ÿ> 370 Aœÿë{bÿ’ÿ {Ó$#¨æBô FLÿ A×æßê ™æÀÿæ Àíÿ{¨ S÷Üÿ~ LÿÀÿæ¾æBdç >
Aæþ Óºç™æœÿ{Àÿ {Lÿ¢ÿ÷ H Àÿæf¿ ÓÀÿLÿæÀÿZÿ þš{Àÿ ¯ÿçµÿçŸ äþ†ÿæ H Lÿæ¾ö¿æœÿ´ßœÿ, A$öÀÿ ¯ÿ+œÿ H ¯ÿç¯ÿæ’ÿÀÿ œÿç‚ÿöß Ó¸Lÿö{Àÿ Ó¯ÿç{ÉÌ ¯ÿç¯ÿÀÿ~ê ’ÿçAæ¾æBdç > Óºç™æœÿ{Àÿ AæD {SæsçF ¨÷LÿæÀÿ A™#LÿæÀÿÀëÿ ¯ÿ¿æQ¿æ ¯ÿç’ÿ¿þæœÿ ÀÿÜÿçdç, ¾æÜÿæLÿç ÀÿæÎ÷œÿê†ÿçÀÿ œÿç{”öÉLÿ œÿç‚ÿößæ¯ÿÁÿê µÿæ¯ÿ{Àÿ ¯ÿ‚ÿöç†ÿ {ÜÿæBdç > FÜÿç A™#LÿæÀÿSëÝçLëÿ Óºç™æœÿÀÿ {’ÿÉÀÿ ÉæÓœÿ œÿçþ{;ÿ A¨ÀÿçÜÿæ¾ö¿ {¯ÿæàÿç {WæÌ~æ LÿÀÿæ¾æBdç æ Lÿç;ëÿ {ÓSëÝçLÿ œÿ¿æß ¨÷’ÿæßê œÿëÜÿô;ÿç A$`ÿ ÀÿæÎ÷¨÷’ÿˆÿ {þòÁÿçLÿ A™#LÿæÀÿSëÝçLëÿ œÿ¿æß ¨÷’ÿæßê >
Óæ™æÀÿ~†ÿ… {SæsçF ÓóWêß Óºçç™æœÿLëÿ Óó{É晜ÿ LÿÀÿæ¾ç¯ÿæ A†ÿ¿;ÿ fsçÁÿ ¯ÿçÌß A$`ÿ Aæþ Óºç™æœÿ ¨÷{~†ÿæþæ{œÿ FÜÿæLëÿ œÿþœÿêß LÿÀÿç¯ÿæ ¨æBô D’ÿ¿þ LÿÀÿçd;ÿç > Lÿç;ëÿ {Lÿ{†ÿLÿ {ä†ÿ÷{Àÿ FÜÿæ ¯ÿÜëÿþ†ÿ ’ÿ´æÀÿæ ¾æÜÿæLÿç FLÿ fsçÁÿ ¨÷{ßæS ’ÿ´æÀÿæ Óó{Éæ™#†ÿ LÿÀÿæ¾æB¨æ{Àÿ A$öæ†ÿú {Lÿ{†ÿ{¯ÿ{Áÿ Óæ™æÀÿ~ ÓóQ¿æ™#Lÿ †ÿ AæD {Lÿ{†ÿ{¯ÿ{Áÿ ’ëÿB †ÿõ†ÿêßæóÉ ÓóQ¿æ™#Lÿ > F {œÿB Aæ{º’ÿLÿÀÿ ¨÷$þÀëÿ LëÿÜÿ;ÿç : ‘We can therefore safely say that the Indian federation will not suffer from the fault or rigidity or legalism. Its distinguished feature is that it is a flexible federation.”
F$#¨æBô {Ó ¨ë~ç LëÿÜÿ;ÿç {¾ : The three mechanism of the system derived by the Assembly to the predictions, have made the constitution flexible at the same time protected the rights of the states. They have worked better than a mediating process in any other country where federalism and British parliamentary system jointly formed the basis of the constitution.
ÉæÓœÿÀÿ Óë¯ÿç™æ ’õÿÎçÀëÿ Aæþ ÉæÓœÿ ¨÷~æÁÿêLëÿ †ÿççœÿçµÿæS{Àÿ ¯ÿçµÿNÿ LÿÀÿæ¾æBdç > ÉæÓœÿÀÿ ¯ÿç™æßLÿ ¯ÿ¿¯ÿ×æ ¯ÿæ œÿçßþ ¨÷~ßœÿ †ÿ$æ Óó{É晜ÿLÿæÀÿê Óó×æ, Lÿæ¾ö¿œÿç¯ÿöæÜÿê ¯ÿæ ¨÷ÉæÓœÿLëÿ œÿçߦ~ LÿÀÿç¯ÿæ Óó×æ F¯ÿó ¯ÿ¿Nÿç ¯ÿç{ÉÌZÿëÿ ÓëÀÿäæ ¨÷’ÿæœÿ œÿçþ{;ÿ þëNÿ H œÿçÀÿ{¨ä ¯ÿç`ÿæÀÿ ¯ÿ¿¯ÿ×æ Adç> Aæ{þ Aæþ Óºç™æœÿÀÿ 326 Aœÿë{d’ÿ Aœÿë¾æßê Óæ¯ÿæÁÿLÿ {µÿæs ¨÷$æ SõÜÿê†ÿ LÿÀÿçAdë > FÜÿç AœÿëÓæ{Àÿ ¨÷{†ÿ¿Lÿ 18¯ÿÌöÀÿ œÿæSÀÿçLÿ œÿç¯ÿöæ`ÿœÿ ¨÷Lÿ÷çßæ{Àÿ þ†ÿ Óæ¯ÿ¿Ö LÿÀÿçç¨æÀÿç{¯ÿ> {Óþç†ÿç †ÿüÿÓçàÿµÿëNÿ fæ†ÿç H D¨fæ†ÿç ¨æBô ×æœÿ ÓóÀÿä~ ¯ÿ¿¯ÿ×æ LÿÀÿæ¾æBdç > fæ†ÿêß FLÿ†ÿæ H ÓóÜÿ†ÿç Àÿäæ ¨æBô Óæ¸÷’ÿæßçLÿ ¨÷†ÿçœÿç™#†ÿ´Lëÿ D{bÿ’ÿ LÿÀÿçdë> F$#{Àÿ {Lÿ¯ÿÁÿ ¯ÿ¿¯ÿ×æ ÀÿÜÿçàÿæ {¾ 10¯ÿÌö ¨æBô A$öæ†ÿú 1960 ¨¾ö¿;ÿ †ÿüÿÓçàÿµÿëNÿ fæ†ÿç H D¨fæ†ÿç ¨÷æ$öêþæœÿZÿ œÿçþ{;ÿ {Lÿ{†ÿæsç AæÓœÿ ÓóÀÿä~ {Üÿ¯ÿ > ¨Àÿ¯ÿˆÿöê LÿæÁÿ{Àÿ FÜÿæ F¾æ¯ÿ†ÿú ¯ÿÞç `ÿæàÿçdç >
Aæþ Óºç™æœÿ{Àÿ ¨÷¯ÿˆÿöç†ÿ ÓÀÿLÿæÀÿ ¯ÿ÷çsçÉ ™Àÿ~Àÿ ÓóÓ’ÿêß A{s æ Aæ{þ{ÀÿLÿêß ¨•†ÿç œÿë{Üÿô > ¯ÿ÷çsçÉ ¨•†ÿç{Àÿ Daÿ†ÿþ ÉçQÀÿ{Àÿ f{~ ¯ÿóÉæœÿëLÿ÷þçLÿ Óþ÷æs ¯ÿæ Óæþ÷æjê ÀÿÜÿç$æ;ÿç> Lÿç;ëÿ AæþÀÿ FLÿ Óæ™æÀÿ~†ÿ¦ ÀÿæÎ÷ {Üÿ†ÿë Fvÿæ{Àÿ f{~ œÿç¯ÿöæ`ÿç†ÿ ÀÿæÎ÷¨†ÿç ÉæÓœÿ þëQ¿ As;ÿç >
Aæþ Óó¯ÿç™æœÿÀÿ µÿçŸ FLÿ ¯ÿç{É̆ÿ´ FÜÿç {¾ FÜÿæ ÓóWêß ¯ÿ¿¯ÿ×æ{Àÿ FLÿæ†ÿ½Lÿ ÉæÓœÿ ¯ÿæ {Lÿ¢ÿ÷êµÿí†ÿ ÉæÓœÿLëÿ ÉNÿçÉæÁÿê LÿÀÿç¨æÀÿçdç> µÿçŸ FLÿ ÓüÿÁÿ†ÿæ FÜÿç {¾ ¨÷æß 600{Sæsç µÿæÀÿ†ÿêß Àÿæf¿ ¯ÿSöZëÿ µÿæÀÿ†ÿÀÿ A¯ÿÉçÎ µÿæS ÓÜÿç†ÿ Óæþçàÿ LÿÀÿçdç> FÜÿæ {Ó´bÿæLõÿ†ÿ F¯ÿó Ó”öæÀÿ ¯ÿàâÿµÿ µÿæB ¨{sàÿZÿ {¾æSëô Ó»¯ÿ {ÜÿæBdç>
Aæþ Óºç™æœÿ Ó¸Lÿö{Àÿ ÓæÀÿ Aæ{¡ÿæœÿê F{Ýœÿ, ¾ëNÿÀÿæf¿Àÿ †ÿLÿ#æÁÿêœÿ ¨÷™æœÿþ¦ê LÿÜÿç$#{àÿ : Of all the experiments in government which has been attempted since the beginning of the time, I belive that the Indian venture into Parlimentary Government is the most exciting.
S÷êœÿµÿçàÿ AÎçœÿú f{~ Aæ{þÀÿçLÿêß Óæºçç™æœÿçLÿ, ¾çF Aæþ Óºç™æœÿ {œÿB LëÿÜÿ;ÿç : Perhaps it is the greatest political venture since that originated in philadilphia in 1787... first and foremost a social document.
The mejority of Indians constitution provisions are either directly arrived at furthering the aim social revolution or attempt to foster this revolution establishing conditions necessary for the achievement.
FÓ¯ÿë ’õÿÎçÀëÿ ¯ÿç`ÿæÀÿ Lÿ{àÿ µÿæÀÿ†ÿÀÿ Óºçç™æœÿ FLÿ þÜÿæœÿú ’ÿàÿçàÿ ú> Aæþ µÿæÀÿ†ÿ þÜÿæœÿú> F~ë FÜÿç þÜÿæœÿ {’ÿÉÀÿ 26 fæœÿëßæÀÿê FLÿ SëÀëÿ†ÿ´¨í‚ÿö ’ÿç¯ÿÓ > FÜÿæLëÿ {’ÿÉÀÿ Àÿæf™æœÿê ’ÿçàâÿê H Àÿæf¿ Àÿæf™æœÿê †ÿ$æ {’ÿÉÀÿ {Lÿæ~ Aœÿë{Lÿæ~{Àÿ þÜÿæÓþæ{ÀÿæÜÿ{Àÿ ¨æÁÿç†ÿ ÜëÿF > {Ó’ÿçœÿ ’ÿçàâÿêÀÿ ÀÿæBÓçœÿæ Üÿçàÿ (ÀÿÎ÷¨†ÿç µÿ¯ÿœÿ) vÿæÀëÿ Àÿæf¨$ {’ÿB FƒçAæ {Ssú ¾æFô ¨¿æ{ÀÿÝú `ÿæ{àÿ > BƒçAæ {Ssú (¾æÜÿæLÿç Àÿæf¨$Àÿ {Ę́÷æ;ÿ) vÿæ{Àÿ ÉÜÿê’ÿ {¾Dôþæ{œÿLÿç {’ÿÉÀÿ Ó´æ™êœÿ†ÿæ ÓóS÷æþ{Àÿ F¯ÿó ¨{Àÿ {’ÿÉÀÿ Óæ¯ÿö{µÿòþ†ÿ¿ Àÿäæ LÿÀÿç¯ÿæ{Àÿ fê¯ÿœÿ DÓSöö LÿÀÿçd;ÿç, {ÓÜÿçþæœÿZÿ D{”É¿{Àÿ AæþÀÿ ¨÷™æœÿþ¦ê "AþÀÿ {f¿æ†ÿç' vÿæ{Àÿ ¨ëÑæWö¿ A¨ö~ LÿÀÿ;ÿç >
FÜÿæ¨{Àÿ {Ó Aœÿ¿æœÿ¿ œÿçþ¦ç†ÿ þÜÿæþæœÿ¿þæœÿZÿ ÓÜÿ ¨†ÿæLÿæ D{ˆÿæÁÿœÿ ×Áÿ{Àÿ D¨×ç†ÿ ÜëÿA;ÿç > FÜÿæ ¨{Àÿ ¨{Àÿ ÀÿæÎ÷÷¨†ÿç {Óvÿæ{Àÿ D¨×ç†ÿ {ÜÿæB fæ†ÿêß ¨†ÿæLÿæ D{ˆÿæÁÿœÿ LÿÀÿ;ÿç > ¨{Àÿ ¨{Àÿ fæ†ÿêß ÓóSê†ÿ {¯ÿæàÿæ ¾æF F¯ÿó 21sç {†ÿæ¨ Óàÿæþê ’ÿçAæ¾æF > FÜÿæ¨{Àÿ Lÿ÷þæœÿ´ß{Àÿ `ÿæ{àÿ {Óðœÿ¿¯ÿæÜÿçœÿêÀÿ †ÿçœÿç ¯ÿçµÿæS : fÁÿ, ×Áÿ H AæLÿæÉ ¯ÿæÜÿçœÿêÀÿ þæaÿöüÿæÎ > {Óþæ{œÿ Óþ{Ö œÿçfÓ´ ÓæþÀÿçLÿ {ÉðÁÿê{Àÿ Óë¢ÿÀÿ µÿæ¯ÿ{Àÿ Aœÿë{þæ’ÿç†ÿ {¨æÌæLÿ ’ÿ´æÀÿæ {Éæµÿç†ÿ $æAæ;ÿç> {Óþæ{œÿ ÀÿæΨ÷†ÿçZëÿ Óàÿæþê ¯ÿæ Óæàÿë¿sú f~æ;ÿç F¯ÿó ÀÿæÎ÷¨†ÿç FÜÿç Aµÿç¯ÿæ’ÿœÿ S÷Üÿ~ LÿÀÿ;ÿç> ÀÿæÎ÷¨†ÿç {ÜÿDd;ÿç ÓæþÀÿçLÿ ¯ÿçµÿæSÀÿ Ó{¯ÿöæaÿLÿˆÿöæ> {ÓþæœÿZÿ ÓæèÿLëÿ F$#{Àÿ {’ÿÉÀÿ ¯ÿçµÿçŸ ×æœÿÀëÿ ¯ÿdæ¯ÿdç {ÜÿæB AæÓç$#¯ÿæ Fœÿú.Óç.Óç., FÓç.Óç. SæBÝú F¯ÿó ÔÿæDs dæ†ÿ÷dæ†ÿ÷êþæ{œÿ AóÉS÷Üÿ~ LÿÀÿç$æ;ÿç > FÜÿæ¨{Àÿ Àÿæf¿ H {Lÿ¢ÿ÷ ÉæÓç†ÿ AoÁÿÀëÿ AæÓç$#¯ÿæ ¯ÿçµÿçŸ ÓæóÔõÿ†ÿçLÿ {†ÿæÀÿ~ , {þÞ H ¨¿æ{ÀÿÝþæœÿZÿ{Àÿ AæLÿÌö~êß ¨÷’ÿÉöœÿ LÿÀÿæ¾æF>
FÜÿç A¯ÿÓ{Àÿ {Óðœÿ¿¯ÿçµÿæS †ÿ$æ Aœÿ¿æœÿ¿ ’ëÿ…ÓæÜÿæÓçLÿ Lÿæ¾ö¿¨æBô ¯ÿ¿Nÿç¯ÿç{ÉÌZëÿ ¯ÿçµÿçŸ D¨æ™# H ¨ëÀÿÔÿæÀÿ ’ÿ´æÀÿæ Ó¼æœÿç†ÿ LÿÀÿæ¾æB$æF> FÜÿç Óþß{Àÿ AæLÿæÉ ¯ÿæÜÿçœÿêÀÿ àÿÞìAæ DÝæfæÜÿfþæœÿZÿÀÿ AæLÿæÉ{Àÿ üÿâæSüÿæÎ `ÿæàÿç$æF F¯ÿó {Óþæ{œÿ AæLÿÉþæSöÀëÿ FÜÿç DÓ#¯ÿLëÿ AæLÿæÉ þæSöÀëÿ ¨ëÑ ¯ÿõÎç ’ÿ´æÀÿæ A†ÿ¿;ÿ `ÿþ†ÿúLõÿ†ÿ F¯ÿó D¨{µÿæS¿ LÿÀÿç$æAæ;ÿç >
AœÿëÀíÿ¨ DÓ#¯ÿþæœÿ Àÿæf¿ Àÿæf™æœÿêþæœÿZÿ{Àÿ `ÿæ{àÿ > Àÿæf¿ Àÿæf™æœÿê{Àÿ Àÿæf¿¨æÁÿþæ{œÿ Aµÿç¯ÿæ’ÿœÿ S÷Üÿ~ LÿÀÿ;ÿç > †ÿæZÿ Aœÿë¨×ç†ÿç{Àÿ þëQ¿þ¦ê, Aœÿ¿×æœÿþæœÿZÿ{Àÿ þ¦ê ¯ÿæ AüÿçÓÀÿþæ{œÿ Aµÿç¯ÿæ’ÿœÿ S÷Üÿ~ LÿÀÿ;ÿç>
FÜÿç’ÿçœÿ ÀÿæÎ÷¨†ÿç fæ†ÿç D{”É¿{Àÿ ¯ÿæˆÿöæ ÀÿQç$æ;ÿç > {†ÿ{¯ÿ DÓ#¯ÿ AæÀÿ»{Àÿ AþÀÿ ÉÜÿê’ÿþæœÿZÿ ¨÷†ÿç Ó½õ†ÿç`ÿæÀÿ~ LÿÀÿæB$æ;ÿç >
FÜÿç ’ÿçœÿÀÿ ÓþÖ Lÿæ¾ö¿Lÿ÷þ ’íÿÀÿ’ÿÉöœÿ F¯ÿó AæLÿæɯÿæ~ê þæšþ{Àÿ {’ÿÉÓæÀÿæ ¨÷’ÿÉöç†ÿ H ¨÷`ÿæÀÿç†ÿ ÜëÿF F¯ÿó FÜÿç’ÿçœÿ {’ÿÉÀÿ Ó¯ÿö†ÿ÷ ÓÀÿLÿæÀÿê ¯ÿæ {¯ÿÓÀÿLÿæÀÿê Lÿæ¾ö¿æÁÿß{Àÿ ¯ÿæ ’ÿ©Àÿ{Àÿ Fþç†ÿçLÿç Ó¯ÿöÓæ™æÀÿ~ ×æœÿþæœÿ DÓ#¯ÿ þëQÀÿç†ÿ $æF > FÜÿæ Aæþ ¨æBô F¯ÿó {’ÿÉÀÿ µÿ¯ÿçÌ¿†ÿ ¨æBô FLÿ þÜÿæœÿú ¨Àÿ¸Àÿæ {ÜÿæB ¨æÁÿç†ÿ {ÜÿDAdç F¯ÿó {ÜÿD$#¯ÿ >¯ÿçµÿ矆ÿæ þš{Àÿ FLÿ†ÿæ H ÓóÜÿ†ÿçÀÿ þÜÿæœÿ fæ†ÿê߆ÿæ µÿæ¯ÿ ¯ÿÜÿœÿ Lÿ{Àÿ FB µÿæÀÿ†ÿÀÿ Óæ™æÀÿ~†ÿ¦ ’ÿç¯ÿÓ 26 fæœÿëßæÀÿê >
Ašä, HÝçÉæ µÿæÌæ ÓóÀÿä~ F¯ÿó S{¯ÿÌ~æ ¨÷†ÿçÏæœÿ,fs~ê, {þæ-: 9938344138

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